This is Part Two of a three-part series on Sentence Structure by Shauna Bolton, Grammarian Extraordinaire! Read Part 1 here

 

Type 1 – The Compound Sentence

Type 2 – The Compound Sentence

 

  • A compound sentence has two or more independent clauses (sentences).

 

Example 1: “The robbers fled, but the police captured them.”

  • When you connect two sentences with a comma, you MUST use one of the seven coordinating conjunctions.
  • The seven coordinating conjunctions are for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so.
    • “FANBOYS” is a helpful acronym to remember them.

 

Example 2:I read the book, but I hated it.”

 

Example 3: I ran the marathon, so I relaxed at home for a month.”

 

Example 4: Corporations keep detailed records, for the law requires it.”

 

Example 5: You arrive on time, or you wait for an hour for the next train.”

 

Example 6: I will not come today, nor will I come tomorrow.”

(Nor requires inverted word order. When two or more words are marked as verbs, you’re looking at a verb phrase. In this example, negative uses three words; positive uses two.)

 

Example 7: I ate a big meal, yet I feel hungry still.”

 

QUICK CHECK: Which sentences are simple with compound subjects and predicates? Which sentences are compound?

  1. Lilacs bloom in April, and roses bloom in May.
  2. Teaching hospitals and clinics treat patients and train doctors.
  3. Websites and department stores advertise and sell women’s shoes.
  4. I can’t remember where I got it, but it’s my favorite suitcase.
  5. Penicillin and its many derivatives cure diseases and save lives.
  6. These lemons and limes look old and cost too much.
  7. Jean and his sister Margot came to America and attended college.
  8. I disliked practicing law, so I became a teacher.

ANSWERS

Simple with compound subjects/predicates

2, 3, 5, 6, 7

Compound sentences:

1, 4, 8

 

Notes

  1. If you connect two sentences with a comma and no conjunction, you create the deadly comma splice.
  2. If you connect two sentences without a comma, you create the deadlier run-on sentence.
  3. Both the comma splice and the run-on sentence are grade-school errors that tell readers, editors, and publishers you don’t know how to write.

If you don’t know how to use a coordinating conjunction to connect two sentences, your writing will be full of comma splices and run-on sentences.

 

IT WILL BE UNPUBLISHABLE.

 

LEARN THE RULE.

 

Two More Ways to Create Compound Sentences

 

SEMI-COLONS

  • A compound sentence results when you join two closely related independent clauses with a semi-colon.

 

Example 8: Arturo didn’t lose the game; he won.

Example 8a: Sammy likes ice cream; Jenny prefers cake.

Example 8b: I am tired; Marcia left for college. – INCORRECT

 

The two independent clauses are NOT related. They cannot be joined with a semi-colon.

 

CONJUNCTIVE ADVERBS

  • Two independent clauses can be joined using a semi-colon, a conjunctive adverb, and a comma.

 WHAT IS A CONJUNCTIVE ADVERB?

  • An adverb describes verbs, adjectives, and other adverbs.
    • walked quickly
    • tasted very delicious
    • answered somewhat hesitantly

 

  • A conjunction connects words, phrases, and clauses.

 

  • A conjunctive adverb is an adverb that connects independent clauses.

 

WHAT KINDS OF WORDS ARE CONJUNCTIVE ADVERBS?

  • accordingly, also, anyway
  • besides
  • certainly, consequently, conversely
  • equally
  • finally, further, furthermore
  • hence, henceforth, however
  • in addition, in contrast, incidentally, indeed, instead
  • likewise
  • meanwhile, moreover
  • namely, nevertheless, next, nonetheless, now
  • otherwise
  • rather
  • still, subsequently
  • then, thereafter, therefore, thus
  • undoubtedly
  • …and many more.

 

WHAT DO CONJUNCTIVE ADVERBS DO BESIDES CONNECT INDEPENDENT CLAUSES?

 

  • They show the relationship between the two clauses.
    • cause and effect: accordingly, consequently, hence, therefore, thus
    • certainty: certainly, undoubtedly
    • change: henceforth, thereafter
    • compare/contrast: conversely, however, in contrast, instead, otherwise, rather
    • disregard: however, nevertheless, nonetheless, still,
    • emphasis: besides, certainly, further, furthermore, indeed, moreover, namely
    • sequence: consequently, finally, next, now, subsequently, then, thereafter,
    • (in)significance: anyway, incidentally
    • similarity: also, equally, likewise
    • simultaneous action: meanwhile


Example 9:    The jury has returned a “guilty” verdict; accordingly, a sentencing hearing will be held on Monday, July 10, at 11:30 a.m.

Example 9a: After robbing the bank, the bandits fled Dry Gulch; meanwhile, the sheriff and his posse prepared to ambush them.

Example 9b: The committee has considered the reasons for changing our voting procedure; nonetheless, we believe the current system is still the better choice.

 

  • Conjunctive adverbs can be used emphatically to begin a sentence. The two sentences that result are both

 

Example 10: The jury has returned a “guilty” verdict. Accordingly, a sentencing hearing will be held on Monday, July 10, at 11:30 a.m.

Example 10a: After robbing the bank, the bandits fled Dry Gulch.   Meanwhile, the sheriff and his posse were preparing an ambush for them.

Example 10b: The committee has considered the reasons for changing our voting procedure. Nonetheless, we believe the current system is still the better choice.

 

Part 3 will cover complex and compound/complex sentences.

 

Please leave any questions or comments at the bottom of the page in the area provided. We are interested in all feedback.

 

If you like my site please, like and share = )
Follow by Email
Facebook
Facebook
LinkedIn
GOOGLE
GOOGLE
http://www.ourwritersjourney.com/2017/04/26/four-basic-sentence-types-part-2/
RSS